Functional Speech and Voice Disorders: Case Series and Literature Review

Functional disorders of speech and voice, subtypes of functional movement disorders, represent abnormalities in speech and voice that are thought to have an underlying psychological cause. These disorders exhibit several positive and negative features that distinguish them from organic disorders. This article describes clinical manifestations of functional disorders of speech and voice, and illustrate these features using six clinical cases. Functional disorders of speech and voice may manifest in a variety of ways, including dysphonia, stuttering, or prosodic abnormalities. Given that these disorders have been understudied and may resemble organic disorders, diagnosis may be challenging. Appropriate treatment may be quite effective,
highlighting the importance of prompt and accurate diagnosis. #stuttering

Chung, David S., Wettroth, Chelsea, Hallett, Mark, and Maurer, Carine W.. (2018). Functional Speech and Voice Disorders: Case Series and Literature Review. Movement Disorders Clinical Practice, 5, 312-316 https://doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12609

[speech disorders, voice disorders, movement disorders, communication, stuttering]

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Understanding the Emotional Impact of Communication Disorders as a Way to Develop Counseling Skills

The emotional impact of communication disorders (e.g., hearing loss, autism, stuttering, aphasialoss of language, etc.) on individuals and their families are evident; however, most speechlanguage clinicians do not feel comfortable providing counseling services due to lack of training. To increase clinicians’ ability to help clientele and their families cope with their disorders and boost treatment outcomes, understanding the stress of the clients and families is critical for developing needed counseling skills such as empathy and active listening. #stuttering

YUing-Chiao, Tsao. (2018). Understanding the Emotional Impact of Communication Disorders as a Way to Develop Counseling Skills. 2018 HAWAII UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES, ARTS, HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES & EDUCATION JANUARY 3 – 6, 2018 HONOLULU, HAWAII.
https://huichawaii.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Tsao-Ying-Chiao-2018-AHSE-HUIC.pdf

[communication disorder, emotions, counseling]

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The Role of Acceptance in Reducing Anxiety in Stuttering: A Theoretical Framework

Childhood onset stuttering, while being an established speech impediment, operates on a spectrum of severity. Anxiety’s influence on stuttering has yet to be fully explored, however, evidence suggests the two are strongly correlated. With that said, people who stutter (PWS) often find that they lose control of fluency when experiencing strong negative emotions such as fear and anxiety. In the context of the aggravation of a childhood-onset stuttering, behavioral management often focuses on reducing situational anxiety. Anxiety tends to become a habitual response to certain elements in the environment for PWS. This is due to the way in which our brains are wired to obtain information that leads to the triggering of behaviors. The brain consolidates information gathered from the environment which consequently primes the mind for automatic processing. Automatic thought processing leads to the construct of unwanted cognitive belief systems that have to ability to trigger anxiety and unwanted thoughts when experiencing certain events throughout life. A new third wave of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), has only recently began being utilized as therapy for stuttering. ACT’s uniqueness lies in is its engagement of acceptance, which allows for processes to occur that are vital for long-term functional change of cognitions that sustain anxiety. This paper presents a theoretical framework of the role acceptance plays in reducing anxiety for PWS along with the neurological and psychological mechanisms at play throughout this process. #stuttering

Arzola, Emily Patricia. (2018). The Role of Acceptance in Reducing Anxiety in Stuttering: A Theoretical Framework.
https://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/6982?show=full

[stuttering, acceptance, anxiety, ACT, CBT]

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Alignment of the Irish legal system and Article 13.1 of the CRPD for witnesses with communication difficulties

Irish and international legal reform resulting from the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [CRPD] has primarily focussed on Article 12, the right to exercise legal capacity. Article 13, which declares the right to access justice and the right to access procedural accommodations for all with disabilities, is often neglected. Specifically, research has not sufficiently explored the accommodations needed by witnesses with communication difficulties to testify in the courtroom. This study brings this aspect of Article 13 into focus by exploring the views of Irish legal professionals and disability advocates regarding existing and potential further accommodations for witnesses with communication diffiuclties in Irish criminal proceedings. By comparing and contrasting contributions, a series of conflicting perspectives between the legal profession and disability community are revealed. As successful implementation of Article 13 requires collaboration between both groups, this study concludes that these conflicts will need to be acknowledged and addressed in order for reform of courtroom accommodations to succeed. #stuttering

O’Leary, Catherine & Feely, Michael. (2018). Alignment of the Irish legal system and Article 13.1 of the CRPD for witnesses with communication difficulties. Disability Studies Quarterly.
http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/5587/4887

[stuttering, disability, communication, legal, disabilities]

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Emotional clarity and attention to emotions in cognitive behavioral group therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction for social anxiety disorder

We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial. At pretreatment,
posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, patients with SAD completed measures of social anxiety, emotional clarity, and attention to emotions. Controls completed measures at baseline only. At
pretreatment, patients with SAD had lower levels of emotional clarity than controls. Emotional clarity increased significantly among patients receiving CBGT, and changes were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Emotional clarity at posttreatment did not differ between CBGT and MBSR or between MBSR and WL. Changes in emotional clarity predicted changes in social anxiety, but emotional clarity did not moderate treatment outcome. Analyses of attention to emotions were not significant. Implications for the role of emotional clarity in the treatment of SAD are discussed. #stuttering

Butler, Rachel M., Boden, Matthew T., Olino, Thomas M., Morrison, Amanda S., Goldin, Philippe R., Fross, James J., and Helmberg, Richard G. (2018). Emotional clarity and attention to emotions in cognitive behavioral group therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction for social anxiety disorder. jOURNAL OF aNCIETY dISORDERS, 55, 31-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2018.03.003

[emotional clarity, attention, social anxiety, CBT, MBSR]

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Enacted stigma and felt stigma experienced by adults who stutter

The aim of this study was to (1) document the experiences of enacted stigma (external stigma, experienced discrimination) and felt stigma (anticipation and expectation of discrimination or negative treatment by others) in adults who stutter, (2) investigate their relationships to each other, and (3) investigate their relationships to global mental health. Most participants reported experiencing several different forms of social devaluation and negative treatment from other people at some point in their lives (i.e., enacted stigma), although they rarely experienced these events during the past year. Most participants agreed that they anticipate future stigmatizing experiences (i.e., felt stigma). Enacted stigma in the past year demonstrated a significant positive relationship to felt stigma. Both enacted stigma in the past year and felt stigma demonstrated significant negative relationships with global mental health. Enacted stigma in the past year and felt stigma were unique predictors of participants’ global mental health. People who stutter experience discrimination and social devaluation, and they anticipate future stigmatizing experiences. Both of these types of stigma, enacted and felt, are associated with reduced mental health in adults who stutter. Assessment and therapy with adults who stutter should address these aspects of stuttering. #stuttering

Boyle, Michael T. (2018). Enacted stigma and felt stigma experienced by adults who stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 73-50-61 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2018.03.004

[stuttering, sitgma, mental health]

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11 June, 2018 10:01

[A Persian-version of the stuttering severity instrument-version four (SSI-4)]

The fourth version of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-4) has been available since 2009. It has some modifications and new features which make it more appropriate at least for clinical practice, although further documentation is needed. The objective of the current research was to translate SSI-4 into Persian language and to discuss its relative and absolute reliability as well as its criterion validity for Persian adults who stutter (PWS). The authors aimed to study how the new subjective self-reports of the SSI-4 complement the stuttering severity score obtained from the SSI-3 or the SSI-4. The authors argued that the response of participants to the complementary self-report questions should also be considered in calculating their stuttering severity score.

Tahmeaebi, Neda, Shafie, Bijan, Karimi, Hamid, & Mazaheri, Masood. (2018). A Persian-version of the stuttering severity
instrument-version four (SSI-4): How the new additions to SSI-4 complement its stuttering severity score?, Journal of Communicatin Disorders, 74, 1-9.

[stuttering, stuttering severity, stutteirng severity instrument, validiy, reliability]

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