The objective of this quantitative research study was to identify and examine psychological effects on adults who stutter who were cyberbullied as an adolescent, specifically looking at depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Using survey methodology, a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to determine if young adults who stutter and were cyberbullied in middle and/or high school express current depression, anxiety, or stress levels as compared to three other groups (no cyberbullying and no stuttering; cyberbullying and no stuttering; and no cyberbullying and stuttering). This study used the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) instrument in an online survey format to determine which, if any, lasting psychological stressors were found. Results indicate that the cyberbullied and stuttering group have significantly higher anxiety levels compared to the three additional groups, significantly higher depression levels compared to the group with no cyberbullying and no stuttering, and significantly higher stress levels compared to the groups with stuttering and no cyberbullying and no cyberbullying and no stuttering. This research indicates the effects that cyberbullying can have on mental health, and additionally the negative effect that stuttering can have on a person’s overall mental health as well. #stuttering
Nicolai, Stephanie, Geffner, Robert, Stolberg, Ronald, and Yaruss, J. Scott. (2018). Retrospective Experiences of Cyberbullying and Emotional Outcomes on Young Adults Who Stutter. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 11, 27-37.
[bullying, stress, anciety, depression, speech disorders, stuttering, quality of life]