This article presents a meta-analytic review of differences in communication attitudes between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The results showed that CWS exhibit more negative communication attitudes than CWNS from the preschool years. The differences between the groups increased with age, but were not influenced by gender. The results indicate that negative communication attitudes can be an effect of stuttering. The authors suggest that key issues requiring further investigation are whether communication attitudes differ as a function of age at stuttering onset and whether communication attitudes influence the development of stuttering.
Guttormsen, Linn Stokke, Kefalianos, Elaina, and Naess, Kari-Ann B. (2015). Communication Attitudes in Children who Stutter: A Meta-analytic Review Journal of Fluency Disorders. Journal of Fluency Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jfludis.2015.08.001