The expected proportions of children who might be identified for higher tiers of instructional support in pre-kindergarten settings are relatively unknown. The proportions of children who would have been identified for higher tiers of instructional language/literacy support when using three different universal screening measures are described. Participants were 659 children participating in the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood (CRTIEC) Tier 1 Study. Results indicated that the proportions of children at Tier 2 and Tier 3 performance levels were higher for children in low-income eligibility programs and varied by program-level characteristics including numbers of English language learners and children with special needs, as well as the universal screening measure used. Implications of these findings suggest the importance of increased focus on early literacy and language in Tier 1 instruction in programs serving high proportions of children at risk as a means of preventing reading failure in future years.
Carta, Judith J., Greenwood, Charles R., Atwater, Jane, McConnell, Scott R., Goldstein, Howard, and Kaminski, Ruth A. (2014). Identifying Preschool Children for Higher Tiers of Language and Early Literacy Instruction Within a Response to Intervention Framework. Journal of Early Intervention, 36, 281-291,