The author analyzes studies of anxiety and temperament in relation to stuttering and observed onset of stuttering is not related to traits of shyness or social anxiety, and that some stuttering children show traits of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Persistent stuttering may lead to speech-related social anxiety. The author proposed that social cognition rather than social anxiety affects stuttering.
Alm, Per A. (2014). Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: Review and analysis with focus on causality. Journal of Fluency Disorders
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