The author sought to create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale. Participants in this study completed a web-based survey including an experimental scale called the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S), designed to measure different levels of self-stigma in people who stutter. A series of established measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction was also included. The author concluded speech-language pathologists can identify the presence of self-stigma in adult clients who stutter and help them to alter these beliefs.
Boyle, Michael P. (2013). Assessment of Stigma Associated With Stuttering: Development and Evaluation of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56, 1517-1529.