This study is a comparison of intrusive memories in groups of people who stutter and those who do not stutter. Themes of disfluency, anxiety, negative social evaluation, self-focus, and pressure to speak were common to both groups. For those who stutter, additional themes of helplessness, shame, sadness, and frustration were revealed only in the group who stuttered. The authors conclude that since recurrent imagery about events in childhood is a potent factor in the memory of people who stutter, modified social anxiety interventions should be considered for those who stutter.
Tutor, Helen, Davis, Stephen, Brewin, Chris R., and Howell, Peter. (2913). Recurrent involuntary imagery in people who stutter and people who do not stutter. Journel of Fluency Disorders. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2013.06.003