This study examined African American mothers’ work socialization messages in relation to adolescents’ work-related values. Results showed that for boys, greater frequency of conventional messages (e.g., importance of discipline, hard work, and skills for job success) was associated with stronger endorsement of hard work for success, whereas for girls, this association was found only for those who perceived positive relations with their mothers. Race-related messages (e.g., the notion that African Americans have to work harder than Anglo Americans to get ahead) predicted girls’ effort in schoolwork, but only among those who had less positive relations with their mothers.
Toyokawa, Teru and McLoyd, Vonnie C. (2013). Work Socialization and Adolescents’ Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families. Journal of Career Development, 40, 167-185.