Terry, Connor, Petscher, and Conlin reported that children increased their Mainstream American English (MAE) production during 1st grade and maintained levels in the 2nd grade. Increasing MAE use was predicted by expressive vocabulary and nonword repetition skills at the beginning of 1st grade. The more children increased their MAE production, the greater their reading gains from 1st grade through 2nd grade. The findings extend previous reports of a significant association between Nonmainstream American English use and specific reading skills among young children.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 55-69