Use of a phoneme monitoring task to examine lexical access in adults who do and do not stutter

Previous work has postulated that a deficit in lexicalization may be an underlying cause of a stuttering disorder (Prins, Main, & Wampler, 1997; Wingate, 1988). This study investigates the time course of lexicalization of nouns and verbs in adults who stutter. A generalized phoneme monitoring (PM) paradigm was used. Adults who stutter (AWS) and typically-fluent peers both showed an expected effect of word class (verbs yielded slower and less accurate monitoring than nouns), as well as phoneme position (word medial/final phonemes yielded slower and less accurate monitoring than word initial phonemes). However, AWS had considerably more difficulty when targets to be monitored were embedded in the medial position. A negative correlation between speed and accuracy was found in typically fluent adults, but not in AWS. AWS also scored nonsignificantly more poorly on an experimental language task. Because of the additional difficulty noted in AWS with word-medial targets, our results provide evidence of phonological encoding differences between the two groups. Expanded use of the PM paradigm is recommended for the exploration of additional aspects of language processing in people who stutter. #stuttering

Howell, Timothy A. & Ratner, Nan Bersetin. (2018). Use of a phoneme monitoring task to examine lexical access in adults who do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders

[stuttering, language encoding, phoneme monitoring, grammarical class]

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Speaker and Observer Perceptions of Physical Tension during Stuttering

Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers’ experience of physical tension. The degree of tension reported by speakers was higher than that observed by specialists. Tension in parts of the body that were less visible to the observer (chest, abdomen, throat) was reported more by speakers than by specialists. The thematic analysis revealed that speakers’ experience of tension changes over time and that these changes may be related to speakers’ acceptance of stuttering. The lack of agreement between speaker and specialist perceptions of tension suggests that using self-reports is a necessary component for supporting the accurate diagnosis of tension in stuttering. #stuttering

Tichenor, S., Leslie, P., Shaiman, S., and Yaruss, J.S. (2017). Speaker and Observer Perceptions of Physical Tension during
Stuttering. Folio Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 69, 180-189

[stuttering, tension perception]

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Public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Japan

The purpose of this study was to determine laypeople’s knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Japan. Although around half of the respondents had heard or met a stutterer, they tended to misunderstand the stuttering; e.g., respondents estimated the prevalence of stuttering as high. Knowledge also differed according to age, gender, and education level. Specifically, older individuals, females, and individuals with higher levels of education tended to have greater knowledge of stuttering. In comparing the results of the present study with similar studies conducted in Belgium, China, and Brazil, we observed several similarities and differences. Although most respondents were to some extent familiar with stuttering, their overall knowledge of the condition was limited. Certain factors could be involved in having knowledge of stuttering, such as one’s life experience, cultural background, and social attitudes toward stuttering. The findings suggest the need for growing knowledge and awareness of stuttering. #stuttering

Limura, Daichi, Yada, Yasuto, Imaizume, Kazuya, Tekeuchi, Toshimitsu, Miyawaki, Manami, and VanBorsel, John. (2018). Public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Japan. Journal of Communication Disorders, 72, 136-145

[stuttering, awareness, public opinion, Japan]

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Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering

This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering. #stuttering

Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun, Conture, Edward kG., Walden, Tedra A. & Jones, Robin M. (2018). Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering. Developmental Neuropsychology

[sympathetic arousal, stuttering]

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Losing What We Really Take for Granted – Language

After realizing how much I struggled, I decided I wanted to help people who had gone
through situations like mine. Now I am at Governors State University, studying to be a speech
pathologist or an interpreter for the deaf. My language barrier may have been hard to deal with,
but I am thankful for the impact it has had on my life. It has led me to the light at the end of the tunnel. It has led me to find what I really want to be in life. I cannot wait to continue my journey with language while also helping others overcome their own struggles. #stuttering

Andriano, Cameron. (2017). Losing What We Really Take for Granted – Language. Andriano, Cameron, “Honorable Mention – ENGL 1000 Literacy Autobiography Contest – 2017” (2017). ENGL 1000 Writing Studies 1 Literacy Autobiography Contest. 4

[stuttering, trauma, speech pathology]

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What happens during stuttering-like disfluencies – An EMA study

The aim of this study is to provide a description of articulatory behaviour during SLDs. More precisely, our objective is to analyse articulatory movements that occur during SLDs and propose a
classification based on supraglottic articulatory gestures. Our hypothesis is that the nomenclature generally used to describe disfluencies does not reflect the articulatory behaviour.
Three categories of disfluencies have been revealed in this study: 1. Reiterations of series of movements which lead to sound(s) or syllables repetitions; 2. Global maintain of the articulatory posture with or without an acoustic output; 3. Anarchical movements with or without an acoustic output. A fourth category can be observed in our data, consisting in a combination of the above. While the first category only concerns repetitions, the two others can concern SLDs categorized as repetitions, prolongations or blocks, showing that the same articulatory pattern can be observed for the 3 types of disfluencies. #stuttering

Didirkova, Ivana, Le Maguer, Sébastien Gbedahou, Dodji Hubert, and Hirsch, Fabrice. (2017). What happens during stuttering-like disfluencies? An EMA study. 11th International Seminar on Speech Production, Tianjin (China).

[EMA, stuttering-like disfluencies, articulatory patterns]

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Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering

The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children’s exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. #stuttering

Eggers, Kurt, De Nil, Luc F., & Van den Bergh, Bea R. H. (2018). Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 56, 33-44

[stuttering response control, temperament, executive control]

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